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考研英语阅读到底该怎么读

作者: 2020-09-01 15:21 来源:重庆编辑
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之前我们分享过,考研英语阅读个别题型的做题方法。从题型入手,知道命题人要考什么、怎么考,我们就可以有的放矢地去总结做题方法,做到在阅读和解题时抓住重点,准确理解,选择正确或最佳答案。但是如何抓住重点呢,也就是阅读到底该怎么读呢?

要回答这个问题,首先要明白阅读的本质是什么?!阅读的本质是逻辑,也就是能够读懂作者的逻辑思路。逻辑又可以简单从正反和主次这两个方面来思考。从行文来看,一个句子内部、句与句之间、段与段之间都存在逻辑关系。不管是句内、句间还是段间的关系,无论是因果、递进还是转折、让步,我们都可以简化为两种逻辑关系—一同向或反向。一般而言,可以把因果、递进、并列关系归为同向,把让步、转折关系归为反向关系。判断同向还反向以后,我们再通过特定的逻辑词,去找主要信息和次要信息,从而搞清楚作者的思路。思路一旦清晰,解题自然不在话下。比如下面这个句子:

But the Nobel Foundation'slim it of three recipients per prize,

each of whom must still be living, has long been outgrown by the collaborative nature of modern research——as will be demonstrated by the inevitable row over who is ignored when it comes to acknowledging the discovery of the Higgs boson.(TEXT 3, 2014)

这个句子的主干是the Nobel Foundation’slim it has been

outgrown by the collaborative nature of modern research, 中间的each of whom是一个从句修饰前面的three recipients, 破折号后面有一个as will be demonstrated by同样是从句, 但是我们会发现它实际上是个例子, 用来例证前面的collaborative nature。读懂了这个例子,我们就会发现这个句子的主要信息就是前面的主干。然后碰巧这个地方就出了一道例证题:

33.The discovery of the Higgs boson is atypical case which involves

[A] controversies over the recipients’status.

[B] the joint effort of modern researchers.

[C] legitimate concerns over the new prizes.

[D] the demonstration of research findings.

读懂了前面那个句子内部的逻辑,我们就可以知道这道题正确答案应该是B,joint effort对应collaborative nature, modern researchers对应modern research.

其实不管是句内逻辑还是句间逻辑,文中往往都会有一些逻辑标志词,我们需要做的就是特别留意,整体把握,比如下面一段文字:

More apparent reasonableness followed.There will now be a seven-day wait for the jobseeker’s allowance.“Those first few days should be spent looking for work, not looking to sign on.”he claimed.“We’redoing these things because we know they help people say off benefits and help those on benefits get into work faster”Help?Really?On first hearing, this was the socially concerned chancellor, trying to change lives for the better, complete with“reforms to an obviously indulgent system that demands too little effort from the newly unemployed to find work, and subsides laziness.What motivated him, we were to understand, was his zeal for“fundamental fairness”-protecting the taxpayer,controlling spending and ensuring that only the most deserving claimants received their benefits.(TEXT 1, 2014)

段首直接出现more apparent reasonableness followed, 我们可

以知道这是承上启下,后面肯定开始展开,到底还有哪些reasonableness。第二句顺而介绍新政规定:失业后需要等待七天方可申请救济。第三四句直接引用奥斯本(本文介绍英国财相奥斯本的“先期工作搜索方案”并批判)口中这一规定的“合理性”。然后五六两个独词问句引发正面质疑:(奥斯本反复强调新政意在“帮助”) help?really?之后用“on first hearing”开头, 重复奥斯本的说辞, 说明表象, 实则暗示事实并非如此。最后一句通过“we were to understand”揭示真相,明确作者观点:正在动机在于保护纳税人、控制救济金支出。

这一段通过可以从help?really?这里断开, 分为两个部分:前面在介绍新政规定(2句)和奥斯本新政目的和合理性的说辞(3、4两句);后面质疑、反击,揭示奥斯本真正动因。通过前面提到的逻辑标志词,我们可以看出“奥斯本口中的新政目的”和“作者所揭示的真正动因”的对比,理解作者反驳态度。

一个段落内部,通过句间逻辑分析,我们可以知晓段落主旨和作者态度。实际上段落之间,也是如此,这个时候我们只需要重点关注每段的段首和段尾,尤其是段首。比如我们把

2014年TEXT 2每一段首句拧出来, 就会发现, 逻辑特别清晰:

1.All around the world, lawyers generate more hostility than the

members of any other profession---with the possible exception of journalism.

2.During the decade before the economic crisis, spending on

legal services in America grew twice as fast as inflation.

3.There are many reasons for this.

4.Reforming the system would help both lawyers and their customers.

5.The other reason why costs are so high is the restrictive guild-like ownership structure of the business.

6.In fact, allowing non-lawyers to own shares in law firms would reduce costs and improve services to customers, by encouraging law firms to use technology and to employ professional managers to

focus on improving irms'efficiency.

第一段提出问题,第二段具体阐释问题,第三段指出原因之一,第四段给出相应解决办法,第五段指出原因之二,第六段提出相应解决办法。这是一篇“问题分析解决型”文章,按照“提出问题―—一分析并解决问题”的脉络展开论述。通过抓每一段的中心,进而明确段间逻辑关系,就可以很好把握文章结构和脉络,最终掌握文章中心思想。

 

其实不管是什么考试的阅读,如果能准确理解句内、句间和段间的逻辑关系,那么就可以很清楚的把握作者的逻辑脉络,解题自然是小菜一碟。但是能否抓住逻辑,需要大家尽可能夯实基础,减少词汇和长难句对准确理解的影响,结合正确的阅读逻辑理解方法训练,理解文章,做对题目,拿到高分,考研成功,自然都是水到渠成的事!

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